How Do Speakers Work to Make and Produce Sound? Step-by-step Explanation

speaker in space

Have you ever wondered how do speakers work? How can a transducer produce such a sound? Transducers are electronic devices that convert energy from one form to another. Precisely the same as the speaker! A speaker converts the mechanical energy of the air into sound energy. Stay with Digimigia as we dissect a speaker’s heart and guts and provide an explanation.

how do speakers work

What Components Make Up a Speaker? What is Inside a Speaker?

The components of a speaker we introduced to you are present in most speakers. Still, the configuration of components may vary in different speakers, such as computer speakers or Bluetooth speakers. However, the specific elements can also depend on the speaker manufacturer.

What are the Internal Components that Make Up a Speaker?

  1. Voice Coil: The voice coil is a long and tightly wound wire coil that plays a crucial role in the operation of a speaker. An electrical current passing through the voice coil creates a magnetic field.
  2. Magnet: The magnet in a speaker actively generates a magnetic field that effectively envelops the voice coil, thereby actively enabling and facilitating the movement of the various components within the speaker.
  3. Spider or Speaker Damper:  It is a thin, wave-shaped material that holds the voice coil assembly together and allows the cone to return to its original position after movement.
  4. Diaphragm Cone: The cone, also known as the diaphragm, is a rigid, cone-shaped material that works with the magnet and voice coil to generate sound. It vibrates in response to the electrical signals applied to the voice coil, producing sound waves.
  5. Dust Cap: The dust cap is a thin material covering the speaker cone’s central opening. It serves as a protective cover, shielding the internal components from the entry of dirt, dust, and other contaminants. 
  6. Basket or Speaker Frame: The basket, also known as the speaker frame, is a structure typically made of cast metal or stamped steel. It holds the various components of the speaker together and provides support and alignment for them. The basket keeps the elements aligned and allows them to work cohesively.
  7. Woven Wire and Speaker Terminals: Speaker terminals are metal connectors that link the speaker wire to the speaker itself. They are connected to the flexible woven wire, which, in turn, attaches to the voice coil that moves the speaker cone.
  8. Surround: The surround is a flexible and durable material, typically made of rubber or foam, that connects the upper edge of the speaker cone to the basket. It forms a circular and flexible ring that allows the cone to move back and forth while maintaining its alignment and providing support.
how does a speaker work

How Does a Speaker Work?

In the world today, JBL Outdoor speakers are used in every aspect. Without them, life would be meaningless, especially in terms of communication. The speaker allows us to hear the sounds of the movies we watch, games, music, and many more. The impact of speakers in today’s life is unlimited, given their usefulness and importance. But it is a condolence that we do not know how does speakers work due to its benefit to everyone. Therefore, let us dwell on and explain how does a speaker produces sound. For example, how the JBL Charge 5 or Bose SoundLink Flex speakers work can be very interesting.

At first, a speaker contains an element called the transducer. It is an electronic mechanism that receives a sound and converts it into a different type of energy. The interference between electricity and sound waves can be used to describe how to speakers work.

Converting electrical signals into sound waves allows us to hear and listen to our favourite music. The quality of this conversion will determine the efficiency and accuracy of the sound produced. This collection consists of audio singles that are converted into physical vibrations to create sound in the air.

What Does a Speaker’s Diaphragm Do to Make Sound?

The movement of a cone or diaphragm component in Mifa speakers generates sound, which creates electromagnetic radiation. The cone is typically made of lightweight yet rigid materials, such as compressed paper, plastic, carbon fiber, or thin metal. A dust cap covers it to prevent contaminants from entering. The spider, a flexible material, supports the cone and dust cap. The type of speaker used is determined by its design, with subwoofers requiring a thicker and sturdier design to produce deep bass sound waves and tweeters utilizing a lighter, dome-shaped design to produce high-frequency sounds.

how speakers work

What Does a Speaker’s Magnet do to Make Sound?

In Tribit speaker operation, the magnets are usually made of a permanent magnet material (often a ceramic or neodymium magnet) with a narrow circular slot where the voice coil is suspended. The function of this magnet is to produce a magnetic field. This magnetic field should attract and repel the voice coil.
The voice coil creates a magnetic field similar to an electromagnet. Ceramic magnets are both cheaper and less valuable than neodymium magnets. However, neodymium magnets are more robust or have a denser magnetic field. At the same time, ceramic magnets can be more expensive. Why are ceramic magnets more expensive? This is because they are used to produce car speaker. You can see a hole in the center of some magnets. This hole circulates air to keep the coil cool.

how to speakers work

How Does the Speaker Work to Create Sound? How JBL DJ Speakers Make Sound?

The primary role of loudspeakers is to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy, thereby compressing air with mechanical energy and converting it into sound energy or good air pressure level, called SLP. A voice coil made of wire creates a magnetic field when an electric current passes through it. When current passes through the speaker, it creates an electric field that interacts with the speaker’s magnet. The speaker magnet repels like charges and attracts opposite charges, causing the voice coil to attract and repel, sending the audio signal through the wire. As a result, the cone to which the voice coil is connected moves back and forth, and electromagnetic radiation creates pressure in the air. We call electromagnetic radiation pressure sound quality.

how do a speaker work

How Does a Speaker Produce Sound

Furthermore, how does a speaker produce sound? First, you ought to know how the speakers work by converting the electrical energy compiled together into mechanical energy. Motion is converted into sound energy once the air is compressed by mechanical power. When an electric current passes through the coils, a magnetic field appears. In a speaker system, an electric current moves along the voice coil of the system, which produces an electric field that then interacts with the magnetic field detected in the speaker.

By getting to understand how does speaker works, the fact can be tested that similar charges repel each other. In contrast, the opposite charge attracts each other in sound production within audio systems. Once the audio signs travel along the voice coils, musical waveforms will start to rise and fall, which is the attraction and repelling of the voice coil with a persistent magnet. After that, the audio signal is transferred to a metal coil of wire. When understanding how a speaker produces sound, note that the diaphragm will oscillate when the coils react to the electric current moving along it, collaborating with a magnet inside the speaker. The diaphragm moves air, producing a sound that is an accurate replica of the original audio signal. This creates the back-and-forth motion of the voice coil, which is what gives it a conical structure. From the deviating motion, pressure is in the air, which is what we hear from a speaker.

how speaker works

Step-by-step Explanation of How Do Speakers Work to Making Sound

  1. From the zero output point, the output voltage representing the waveform of the music initiates and progressively rises.
  2. The coil wire of the microphone speaker actively carries electric current in the opposite direction to the positive direction.
  3. The created vector field around the coil wire represents the polarity of the permanent magnet connected to the speaker’s basket. Remember that magnetic fields attract and opposite fields repel.
  4. The cone/diaphragm starts to move forward and creates pressure, which produces sound.
  5. The voltage of an electronic signal (sound recording) increases towards the peak of a sinusoidal wave in music signals. This causes the current to grow and the power of the voice coil’s magnetic field to increase. This leads to an even greater movement of the cone.
  6. The sound signal passes through the highest output level and starts to decrease. The current decreases and the cone returns to its initial position (zero voltage).
  7. The primary signal reaches zero, known as the “zero crossing voltage threshold,” and the cone returns to its original position.
  8. When the electrical signal undergoes a change to a positive voltage, it undergoes inversion. This causes the current to flow from the negative side of the voice coil to the positive side and creates a reversed magnetic field.
  9. The magnet attracts the coil, thereby causing the cone to move from the front to the back instead of the back to the front.
  10. As the signal continues, the cone undergoes inversion, thereby generating sound waves through its movement.
  11. With increased signal voltage, the amplitude or stereo output returns to zero. The sound signal starts again, and the cycle repeats.
how a speaker works

Why are Speakers Installed in Special Boxes or Frames?

We have learned that the cone in the Tronsmart speaker actively guides the movement of waves in both the forward and backward directions. It actively propels the air towards you, generating a positive pressure wave. However, it also pulls the air back, resulting in detrimental pressure waves.

If the wavelength corresponding to the frequency response of the reproduced signal exceeds the size of the speaker driver, the two speaker drivers actively nullify each other’s generated air pressure waves. Unfortunately, this nullification results in the absence of sound production.

To ensure the functionality of a speaker at all high frequencies, it is imperative that we actively prevent or control sound pressure levels.

The cone experiences pressure and tension applied by the box, which functions as a spring. Notably, the box loses significant output when the frequency is lower than its resonant frequency.

how does the speaker works

What Factors Make the Speaker Not to Do Work?

Alongside “how does a speaker work,” we must tell you how a speaker stops working.

Reasons that may cause your speaker not to work:

  1. Disconnected from the electricity (if the speaker is wired)
  2. Bluetooth disconnection or not correctly connected (if the speaker supports Bluetooth)
  3. Damage to the connections related to speaker wires and audio receiver or internal parts
  4. Problem with the input power supply

How to Fix the Speaker to Work and Make Sound:

Check Your Speaker Settings:

If you use a JBL home speaker, try to set the speaker volume to medium because some speakers lose their ability to produce sound at high volumes.

Note: Restore the speaker to factory settings if possible.

Check the Speaker Connections:

If there is no sound from the speaker, ensure that the speaker is turned on and the volume buttons are correctly activated. Then, if the cables are re-broken, replace them and test the sound.

Check the Power Supply:

One of the effective measures in troubleshooting and solving the problem of reducing the volume of the home speaker is to check the power source. To do this, unplug the speaker and the devices and check the electrical connections. In addition to checking the cables, ensure the power outlet is in good condition.

Understanding how do speakers work and how do speakers produce sound is simple. However, analyzing and repairing the speaker is the work of an expert. Therefore, if you have done these three steps but your speaker still needs to be fixed, taking it to a speaker specialist is recommended.

how do speakers make sound


Many people frequently asked questions about how the speaker works, and we made sure to address all of them in this informative article. We genuinely hope that the content provided has satisfied you and proven to be helpful. For a wide range of speaker options, we invite you to visit digimigia.com, the leading speaker destination in the UAE.

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